Neoplasm: Abnormal formation in some part of the body of a new tissue of a tumor, benign or malignant nature.
Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia: It is defined as architecturally benign prostatic ducts, but covered by atypical cells. These atypical cells share genetic, morphologic, histologic, and immunohistochemical changes, but lack invasion of the basement membrane.
Localized prostate cancer: Cancer that remains only within the prostate and has not spread to other parts of the body.
Advanced prostate adenocarcinoma with local invasion: cancer that remains within the prostate but has invaded nearby lymph nodes and structures.
Metastatic prostate cancer: Cancer within the prostate and that has also spread to other parts of the body.
Stage: Staging helps define the location of the cancer, if or where it has spread, and if it is affecting other parts of the body. Doctors often use diagnostic tests to determine the stage of the cancer.
Ablation: Energy-based ablation has been used for the treatment of many types of tumors, including liver, kidney, lung, and bone cancers, as well as soft tissue tumors of the breast, prostate, thyroid, adrenal gland, head, and neck. This technology advanced rapidly in the 1990s, after the development of ultrasound and MRI imaging, which made image-guided ablation procedures not only possible, but common.
Transurethral: Urethra, prostate and bladder accessing them through the urethral lumen.
Transperineal: Through the skin between the scrotum and rectum
Transrectal: Sample of tissue from the prostate through a fine needle that is inserted through the rectum into the prostate.
Suprapubic: The prostate gland is located just below your bladder and wraps around the top of your urethra. The urethra is a tube that carries urine from your bladder out of your body.
Cryoablation: is a cancer treatment in which cancer cells are killed with extreme cold.
Irreversible Electroporation (IRE): is a non-thermal tissue ablation technique that allows cell destruction by means of a series of short, high-voltage electrical pulses.
Metastases: The spread of cancer cells from the place where cancer first formed to another part of the body.
Surgical Resection: Surgery to remove a part of an organ or gland. It can also be used to remove a tumor and surrounding healthy tissue.
Radiofrecuency: Radiofrequency ablation for cancer is a minimally invasive procedure that uses electrical energy and heat to destroy cancer cells.
Microwave: Microwave ablation uses the energy of electromagnetic waves to heat and destroy the tumor using a probe.
Small and unresectable tumors: Tumors that cannot be removed by surgery.
Hepatocellular carcinoma: It is the most common type of primary liver cancer. It most commonly develops in people who have chronic liver disease, such as cirrhosis caused by hepatitis B or C.
Renal cell carcinoma: It is a type of kidney cancer that begins in the lining of the tiny tubes (tubules) in the kidney.
Invasive ductal adenocarcinoma: It appears in the ductal epithelium (epithelial neoplasm), evolving from pre-malignant lesions to an invasive tumor.
Stroma: Connective tissue that constitutes the matrix or fundamental substance of an organ and supports the cellular elements that make it up.
Exocrine pancreas: The exocrine pancreas secretes pancreatic juice into the duodenum via the pancreatic ducts.
Endocrine pancreas: The endocrine cells of the pancreas are located in the islets of Langerhans, which constitute only 2% of the pancreatic mass. There are four types of cells within the islet that give rise to the following hormones: 20% A cells (α): glucagon (peripheral), 70% B cells (β): insulin and amylin (central), 10% D cells (δ ): somatostatin. + F cells: pancreatic polypeptide.
Jaundice: Yellowing of the skin and mucous membranes that is caused by an increase in bilirubin in the blood as a result of certain liver disorders.
Resectable disease: If the cancer is in only one organ (or has spread just beyond it), and the surgeon believes that the entire tumor can be removed, it is called resectable.
Osteosarcoma: is a type of bone cancer that begins in the cells that make up the bones.
Ewing’s Sarcoma: a cancerous tumor that can occur in any bone in the body, but most often occurs in the bones of the arms, legs, ribs, spine, and pelvis.
Chondrosarcoma: It is a rare type of malignant tumor that begins in cartilage cells and spreads to surrounding bone tissue.
Distal femur: Bone found in the thigh.
Proximal tibia: Largest leg bone on which the distal femur rests.
Proximal humerus: Shoulder bone.
Osteoid osteoma: It is a benign bone tumor.
Non-muscle invasive bladder cancer: It is cancer that grows only in the thin tissue on the inner surface of the bladder..
Muscle invasive bladder cancer: a bladder tumor that has spread to surrounding organs, such as the uterus and vagina in women and the prostate in men, and/or to nearby muscles.
Urothelium: It is the lining of the urinary tract, which includes the renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, and urethra.
Lamina propria: A type of connective tissue that lies beneath a thin layer of tissue that covers the mucous membrane.
Muscularis propia: fine layer of muscle fibers that forms part of the mucosa that lines the internal wall of different organs.
Mitomycin-C: anticancer chemotherapy drug.
Hyperthermia: Increased body temperature above normal.
Intravesical thermochemotherapy treatment: a hot chemotherapy treatment that is placed directly into the bladder.
Mammograms: It is a low-dose x-ray that allows specialists to look for changes in the breast tissue.
Papillary thyroid carcinoma: It is the most common cancer of the thyroid gland. This gland is located inside and in front of the lower neck.
Tiny multifocal carcinoma: Very low risk thyroid cancer.
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